The republican era began in 509 BC, when the Romans abolished the “monarchy” and adopted the republican system, ending the monarchical period and starting the nearly 500-year period of the Roman Republic.
In the early republican era, the Roman power was held by the Senate, the Assembly of Citizens, and executive magistrates such as consuls and censors, gradually forming an oligarchic republic.
From the mid-3rd century BC, the Roman Republic began to expand overseas. Through the Punic Wars, the Macedonian Wars and the Syrian Wars, the Romans established their hegemony in the Mediterranean region.
In the late republican era, Roman society faced serious wealth gap and class conflict. The nobles owned large amounts of land and slaves, while the commoners and small farmers lost their livelihood. The soldiers also became loyal to individual generals rather than to the state.
To reform social inequality, the Gracchi brothers proposed a plan to distribute land to the poor, but were opposed and assassinated by the nobles. Marius implemented a recruitment system that allowed a large number of landless or poor citizens to join the army.
At the end of the republican era, Rome fell into a long civil war. There were military groups such as the First Triumvirate (Crassus, Caesar, Pompey) and the Second Triumvirate (Antony, Lepidus, Octavian